Xiaoqing Wu;Tingting Zheng;Baorong Zhang;
Department of Neurology, Xinchang People’s Hospital;Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital,Zhejiang University School of Medicine;
Exosomes, nano-sized extracellular vesicles secreted by most cell types, are found in all kinds of biological fluids and tissues, including the central nervous system(CNS). The proposed functions of these vesicles include roles in cell–cell signaling, removal of cellular debris, and transfer of pathogens between cells. Many studies have revealed that exosomes derived from the CNS occur in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral body fluids,and their contents are altered during disease, making them an appealing target for biomarker development in Parkinson's disease(PD). Exosomes have been shown to spread toxic a-synuclein(asyn) between cells and induce apoptosis, which suggests a key mechanism underlying the spread of asyn aggregates in the brain and the acceleration of pathology in PD. However, potential neuroprotective roles of exosomes in PD have also been reported. On the treatment side, as drug delivery vehicles, exosomes have been used to deliver small interfering RNAs and catalase to the brain, and have shown clear therapeutic effects in a mouse model of PD. These features of exosomes in PD make them extremely interesting from the point of view of developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.