Experimental methods and tools in electronic packaging applications


Tuo Li;


<正> Experimental characterization plays a significant role in the reliability analysis of electronic packaging and, therefore, is critical in package design and manufacturing. Experimental characterization deals with the material, process and design issues in electronic packaging to ensure processability and reliability. The reliability of a package should be sufficient to meet the manufacture process requirements and the product life expectancy under application conditions. As electronic technology advances, more novel materials are being used in packages and package sizes are becoming smaller and smaller. The components are typically structures with multi-materials and interfaces in a highly compact and integrated feature. The manufacturing process for the semiconductor devices and the related packages are becoming more and more sophisticated, involving numerous complicated steps. As a result, the process characterizations and reliability analyses are becoming more and more challenging. Together with many analytical and numerical methods used in this area, experimental methods have become more and more important. The experimental methods provide material properties which are needed in the theoretical and numerical modeling and for material selections. They are also critical in the areas of process characterizations and failure analysis for design optimizations.In recent years, many major computer and electronic companies have established special groups to focus their efforts on structural mechanics analysis. These efforts include development of new analytical and experimental techniques such as advanced numerical simulations and in-situ measurement tools for local strain/stress measurements. Using these state-of-the art techniques, the reliability of packaging systems can be evaluated and failure mechanisms can be better understood. The information obtained is important in assessing the dependence of reliability on various manufacturing processes and structural and material configurations. Together with other analytical tools, the experimental reliability analysis is conducted at the design and qualification stage so that the reliability of the system can be estimated and optimized before the packages are put into production. The implementation of these advanced techniques has led to increased efficiency, improved reliability and reduced design cycle time, all of which play critical roles in determining the competitiveness of electronic products. In practice, the task of stress/strain analysis is conducted by a mechanical group, design/process characterization is conducted by a process group, and the material, surface and chemical property characterization is conducted by a materials group. These three groups interact and collaborate to achieve a common goal which is to make economical and highly reliable electronic packages. The final success of the effort will be measured by accelerated stress tests.Electronic packaging is a multi-disciplinary field in which many new and exciting developments have taken place in the last few years. The development of new techniques and methodologies for experimental characterizations is one of them.


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