<正> During welding or heat-treatment operations or even during severe accidents in nuclear reactors, for example, on civilian nuclear facilities, steel parts are subjected to large thermal and mechanical actions leading to complex, multiaxial local loads. In these situations, the steel materials employed undergo phase transformations under stress. Reliable numerical simulation of such processes and severe situations require the use of sophisticated models which take into consideration, on the one hand, the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical (phase transformation) behavior of these steels and, on the other hand, the coupling effects between these various physical phenomena. Indeed, interactions do exist among thermics, mechanics and metallurgy.
Experiments of transformation induced plasticity under multiaxial loading for a 16MND5 ferritic steel;
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