Low Temperature Micronization and Particle Size Control of Energetic Materials by Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide:A Review




<正> A new field of applications of compressed gases is the formation of solid particles with well-defined properties, e.g. the particle size, the particle size distribution, the particle shape, the specific surface area and free of solvent inclusions. It is possible to process moderately solids like energetic materials which are difficult to comminute due to thek sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stress. The characteristics of compressed gases allow to vary the morphology of solid particles in a wide range. It is possible to produce crystalline particles with a small size and narrow size distribution without defects, i.e. free of solvent inclusions. Various supercritical fluid based precipitation process have been proposed. In this review, these process which complement each other are discussed. The first micronization process based on supercritical fluids proposed is rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS). The second process is supercritical anti-solvent and related processes (GAS/SAS/ASES/SEDS). Another method is gas/ saturated solutions/ suspensions (PGSS). These three techniques can lead to micro/ nano particles. Finally, these techniques are shown to be applicable for production of very fine particles of energetic materials (such as TNT, HMX, and RDX).


supercritical fliuds; carbon dioxide; particle size control; energetic materials; cold micronization


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