Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Steppe Ribbon Racer(Psammophis lineolatus): The First Representative from the Snake Family Psammophiidae and its Phylogenetic Implications


Minli CHEN;Jinlong LIU;Jun LI;Na WU;Xianguang GUO;Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University;


Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University;


Comparisons of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes(mitogenomes) may yield significant insights into the evolution of organisms and genomes. However,no complete mitogenome from the snake family Psammophiidae has been reported. In this study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Psammophis lineolatus, representing the first mitogenome of Psammophiidae. The total length is 17 166 bp,consisting of 13 protein-coding genes(PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs(tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs(12 S rRNA and16 S rRNA), and duplicate control regions(CRs). This gene arrangement belongs to the Type Ⅲ pattern,which is a widely shared gene order in Alethinophidian snakes. All tRNAs exhibit cloverleaf structures with the exception of tRNA-SerAGY and tRNA-Pro, which lack a dihydrouridine(DHU) arm/stem and TΨC loop,respectively. The 13 PCGs include five start codons(ATG,GTG, ATA, ATT, and ATC), two complete stop codons(TAA and AGG), and two incomplete stop codon(T--and TA-). In addition, the Ka/Ks ratios indicate that all PCGs had undergone a strong purifying selection.Four types of CR domains rearrangement occurred among eight species of Elapoidea. The phylogenetic reconstructions with both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods support the placement of Psammophiidae in the Elapoidea superfamily,with Homalopsidae being the sister taxon to Elapoidea and Colubroidea. However, the sister taxon of Psammophiidae is unclear due to the availability of Elapoidea mitogenomes being limited to the family Elapidae. More mitogenomes from different taxonomic groups in Elapoidea are needed to better understand the phylogenetic relationships within Elapoidea.


mitochondrial genome;;phylogenetic relationships;;Psammophis lineolatus;;Psammophiidae;;purifying selection


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  • [1] WANG GuangLi1, HE ShunPing2, HUANG Song3, HE Miao1 & ZHAO ErMi1,4 1 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 2 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China; 3 College of Huangshan, Huangshan 245041, China; 4 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China, The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and the phylogenetic position of Achalinus meiguensis (Reptilia: Squamata), Chinese Science Bulletin,
  • [2] Xiuli YU;Yu DU;Mengchao FANG;Hong LI;Longhui LIN;Hangzhou Key Laboratory for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, College of Life and Environmental Sciences,Hangzhou Normal University;Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University;Hainan Key Laboratory of Herpetology, College of Tropical Biology and Agronomy, Hainan Tropical Ocean University;, The Mitochondrial Genome of Pseudocalotes microlepis (Squamata: Agamidae) and its Phylogenetic Position in Agamids, Asian Herpetological Research,
  • [3] Desirée A. Douglas;;Axel Janke;;Ulfur Arnason, A mitogenomic study on the phylogenetic position of snakes, Zoologica Scripta,
  • [4] Kumazawa Yoshinori, Mitochondrial DNA sequences of five squamates: phylogenetic affiliation of snakes., DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes,


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